The Agricultural Terraces of Moray, Peru

To get to the Inca agricultural research area, one has to pass through the village of Moray.  It is an interesting drive down the very narrow streets lined with tightly packed houses, with vehicles occasionally passing by on cross streets in front of you without any warning.  You might be playing a game of chicken, except that when you play chicken you can actually see the other vehicle!  The bus barely fit in the narrow street, and making a 90 degree turn into another narrow cross-street in the middle of town required some dexterity and a light touch from Cesar, our bus driver.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAfter passing town, we drove down the dirt road towards the hills.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAHere is a patch of red quinoa that we saw on the way.  We saw quinoa in many places in Peru.  Quinoa comes in many different colors.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe fields looked fertile.  Winter will soon be coming to Peru.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAt the agricultural center we encountered some dry desert vegetation.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWe were told that the agricultural terraces at Moray were used by the Incas to develop varieties of crops that could be grown all over the country.  Because of the levels of the individual terraces that you can see in the picture below, the temperature difference between the bottom-most level and the top was about 27 degrees Fahrenheit.  Each level of the terrace is at a slightly different temperature from the ones above and below it, and experiences its own micro climate.  The temperature at the bottom is more in keeping with the temperature at sea level, and the temperatures at the top correspond to those in the mountains.  By slowly moving plants through different levels of the terraces over long periods of time, the Incas got them to adapt to the micro climate corresponding to that level.  The modified plants could then be grown in other parts of the country.  (FYI, the Inca empire covered an area greater than that of the Roman empire at one time in history.)OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAFYI, Potatoes originated in Peru, and there are over 3000 varieties of potatoes that grow all over the country.

We hiked to the bottom of the terraces and walked across to the other side.  This is at an elevation of 11500 feet.  We had to take it easy!   FYI, there were a few of these terraces in the area, but the one shown in the picture is the only one that has undergone restoration.

I found the dogs in the picture below taking a nap when wandering around looking for a restroom.  We found dogs everywhere we went in Peru.  They looked clean, and I suspect that they are all owned by people.  They were not aggressive.  The only downside is that you had to watch your step to avoid the dog poop, even in big cities like Lima.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWe saw tour groups on ATVs on the dirt roads during our visits to Maras and Moray.  This is a different way to see Peru!OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI snapped this picture as we were descending back into the Sacred Valley and Urubamba, on our way back after our morning trip.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAHere is the bridge under construction over the Urubamba river.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAHere is a picture of another very common form of mototaxi in Peru.  It seems to be a modified motorbike.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERANext blog in the series here.

The Maras Salt Flats in Peru

Juana is an artist, a middle-aged lady who sell paintings to tourists in Urubamba.  She comes from a a family of artists.  She also sells her dad’s and daughter’s paintings.  She waits for the tourist buses to arrive at the hotel that we were staying at, and greets people with her paintings in hand as they exit the bus.  When we first arrived, our tour guide brought her on to the bus and introduced her to us.   He later joked that she was a tourist-chaser (just like an ambulance chaser).  Juana sits at a store-front across the road from the entrance to the hotel so that she can observe the comings and goings at the hotel.

We bought a couple of paintings from Juana.  During our time in Urubamba, we would greet each other whenever we saw each other in front of the hotel.  She did talk about her family.  It turned out that she was over forty years old and pregnant, a slightly risky situation in a small out-of-the-way place like Urubamba.

During our time in Peru, we came across many situations where people on the street were selling products made with their own hands to tourists. Locals would greet us in the streets and offer their wares.  And some of the stuff was quite good.  The sales pitches, in most cases, were not too aggressive.  (“No, gracias”, was my standard response if I was not interested!) Prices were reasonable.   There is a lot of honesty in the  directness of this approach, when compared to buying things in official stores, where things are often overpriced after having passed through the hands of a few middlemen, and things could also be of suspect origin (a lot of fake stuff comes from China!).

The skies were still clearing as we departed for the Maras salt flats (or salt mines, or salt pans, as some people call them) in the morning.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERATo get to Maras, we had to retrace the route we had taken into Urubamba.  We climbed out of the valley and drove back to a point on the main road to Cusco where we had to turn off the road and get on to the dirt road to Maras.  Just outside of Maras, we turned on to a second dirt road that led to the salt flats.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIn a short while, this road narrowed and began to weave its way up and around  mountainsides.  There were blind corners to be negotiated, and the driver had to honk to make sure that it was safe to take the curve on the single lane road.  If two vehicles confronted each other, one would have to back away to a slightly wider section to let the other one through.  There was one occasion where we found a front-end loader that was doing some road work right in front of us just after we had taken a blind corner. That was an interesting encounter!  The road was reasonably busy with what looked like tourist traffic.

We finally arrived at a spot overlooking the salt flats.  It was quite the sight! (Click on the picture to see it in full resolution!)OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERATo our right, we could see the Sacred Valley with the Urubamba river flowing through it.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe salt flats of Maras have been in operation since pre-Columbian times, existing even in the pre-Inca period.  (The Inca empire started in the 1400s.) The flats are fed by springs in the mountain.  There is a flow of water from the hillside to the left of the picture below.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe salt is picked up from within the mountains.  The salt exists because the land rose from the sea a long, long, time ago to form the Andes mountains!  The flats are shaped by the hands of man, and are basically evaporation ponds that are at different levels on the hillside.  The individual ponds are owned and taken care of by individual families, and the whole place operates as a cooperative effort so that all of the ponds are taken care of.  This place is still in operation as a cooperative today.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAYou can see that the stream leaving the salt flats still has salt in the water.  The stream probably feeds the Urubamba river.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThis is a different view of the salt flats from the entrance to the facility.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe water from the spring that feeds the facility flows into channels.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe picture below shows waterways cut into the ground to feed the ponds. The waterways are fed by the main channels, and these further split in multiple directions to feed the ponds located in different directions.  There are gates from these waterways to the individual ponds that can be open and closed.  It is  cooperative effort to make sure that all the ponds are watered and taken care of.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOnce there is enough water in a pond, the inlet gate is closed, and the pond is left to dry out until a layer of salt has been deposited.  The salt has to solidify to a certain consistency before it is extracted.

Salt ponds need regular maintenance to function properly.  The bottom of the pond has to be taken care of on a regular basis to ensure proper operation.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThere is a lot of labor involved in this process.  The salt from the individual ponds needs to be extracted and carried out from the slopes without the aid of machines.

On our way out of the place we passed stores where they were selling little bags of salt in different colors from the salt flats.  We were told that the salt is also exported these days.

Our next stop after the salt flats were the Moray Incan Agricultural ruins just outside of the village of Maras.

Urubamba in the Sacred Valley in Peru

I got a decent night’s sleep after our arrival in Urubamba the previous day. Was up early, as is usually the case when I am traveling. It had rained overnight, but the clouds were lifting when we awoke. They drifted between the distant mountain tops.  The orange arch of the bridge under construction over the Urubamba river also appeared in the distance.  (We had to take a detour over a temporary bridge next to this one to get into town yesterday.)OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Traffic was light at that time of the day.  Vehicles sped past our hotel down the wet road every once in a while, including this auto rickshaw.  Auto rickshaws (also called tuk tuks) are all over the place in Peru.  They are also called mototaxis, and the version in the picture below has doors for the passengers, unlike the auto rickshaws in India.  Auto rickshaws used to be imported from India (Bajaj!), but are now produced locally.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABreakfast in the hotel introduced us to a Peruvian grain called Kiwicha, also known as amaranth or “mini quinoa”. It was to be consumed as a cereal in puffed form.  It is considered a superfood.  Kiwicha was also available for breakfast in a health drink called Kiwigen, which kids like to drink.  (From the advertising on the bottles, they are led to believe that by drinking Kiwigen they will become strong enough to be supermen or astronauts!)

As an aside, the grain quinoa has been consumed in large quantities in Peru historically.  Only recently has it became well known internationally as a superfood.  I had some great quinoa soup on a couple of occasions during this trip.

We got to sample some local breads for breakfast.  In some places they had fresh fruit spreads to go with the bread.  The fruits that we ate with breakfast were the standard fruits that one is used to in the United States, except for the addition of papaya.  We did get mangoes in one hotel.  That did not last too long on the buffet table.

The juices that we got for breakfast during this trip were uneven in quality, but we did occasionally get something that was unique and local, and worth trying.  We did notice that these juices were not sugared up excessively as is usually the case in the US. Coffee was usually quite strong. We ended up drinking coca tea somewhat regularly with breakfast while we were in the mountains to help avoid altitude sickness.

The hotel that we were staying at was an old-fashioned place.  It had an orange tree with oranges in its front yard.  The corridors and the rooms reminded you of a time past.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe gardens were beautiful,OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAand behind the hotel was a big field on which some sort of grain was growing.  It could have been corn. Peru is a major producer of corn, and it is consumed in different forms at different times of the day.  There are many kinds of corn available in different colors.  The kernels are huge, and they do not look anything like what you see in the United States.

We did not explore much of the town itself because we did a few tours outside of town while we were there.  We were told that Urubamba was not that well developed for tourists, and that most of the restaurants in town were not completely safe for people like us to eat at, but the place did not really appear that intimidating. In fact, there seemed to be quite a few tourists around, especially at the hotel we were staying at.  It could have been a reasonable place to walk around and mix with the locals.   There was even a convenience store next to the local gas station!

We had to leave the hotel at an early hour for our morning tour.  The first place that we were visiting were the Maras Salt Flats.

A Stop at Chinchero on the Way to Urubamba and The Sacred Valley

There was no way for me to create daily blogs on the fly while we were traveling in Peru since were too busy visiting places.  Internet connections were also not always reliable.  Very often the days would start before 8 AM.  There was this day when we even departed in a bus for the train station at 5:30 AM after having checked out of the hotel!

Nevertheless, I did expend a few brain cells during the trip thinking about how I should structure this series of blogs.   I came to the conclusion that I should simply follow the flow of my heart and let it take whatever direction it wanted.  This might be considered a case of not have a well defined structure and/or principle of operation. A lifetime of experience has taught me  that having well defined principles of operation sometimes places unnecessary constraints, and can also diminish the joy of the process.  So I will allow this series of blogs to be more free flowing.  At the same time, I am sure that some sort of structure is bound to emerge, considering that this is a case of a former engineer’s brain cells being applied to the task.

But now that the trip has come to an end, I also need to move into action quickly, lest I forget all the details!  They say that memories last forever, but I am not at all certain that this is true.  Sometimes, these memories get lost in the crevices of one’s mind, and dragging these memories out becomes difficult.  Leaving a trail of breadcrumbs in these blogs might help the process!

To get to the Sacred Valley from Lima, the place where we had arrived at in Peru, one has to get to Cusco first, and then proceed further by road or train.  We flew into Cusco with our tour group.   Cusco is at an altitude of 11150 feet.   We had been warned ahead of time to prepare ourselves for the altitude.   We had already started taking our Diamox pills in Lima.  We were now about to be introduced to the practice of chewing of caco leaves, an activity that the natives practice regularly.

We arrived in Cusco somewhat late in the morning.  We could see the mountains of the Andes all around us as the aircraft approached the city.  Because of the thin air and the need for additional lift to keep the aircraft from stalling, it came in for a landing at a greater speed than I am used to.   As we exited the aircraft and waited to board our bus, we breathed in the thin air of the mountains for the first time.  It all seemed good!

The plan was to head immediately out of the city on the tour bus that was waiting for us.

The next couple of pictures were taken outside the airport building after we got our bags.  What is noticeable in all of the places that we visited in Peru is that many buildings do not have a layer of plaster on top of the bricks.  It is standard practice in the country.  In some cases the buildings are complete and occupied in spite of looking unfinished.  In other cases, especially in some homes, you might even find rebars sticking out of the roof.  This is because the building is being constructed by the family a little bit at a time as money becomes available for construction. This does not mean that the part of the house that has already been completed cannot be occupied immediately.  You will probably see more pictures showing this type of construction in future blogs.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe picture below is an advertisement for transportation to what may be the most popular destination in the country for international tourists.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAs we drove out of town, we passed a hill with a statue of Pachacutec, considered one of the greatest Inca kings, on top. It is now believed that he was responsible for what has been built on Machu Picchu.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThere was another monument to the Emperor Pachacutec, beside the road that we were driving along.  OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWe climbed out of the valley that Cusco is situated in using a series of switchbacks. The bus made a stop somewhere along the way, on the hillside, to provide views of the city. While we were stopped we got instructions on the use of coca leaves to fight the effects of altitude sickness.  Our tour manager produced a bag of coca leaves that were safe to chew on. Essentially, one grabs a bunch and gently chews on it, or simply bites on it, on one side of the mouth.  It dissolves slowly over time. For people who do not know, coca leaves are also the source of cocaine when processed in large quantities.  The leaves, and any product made with coca, are banned in the United States, but its use is legal and accepted by all of Peru.  The locals chew on it all the time.  We used it regularly during the trip to help avoid altitude sickness.  There is little danger of addiction at the levels of our usage.  We also drank coca tea and enjoyed coca candies! Here is a view of the city.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAYou can see the kids walking down the hill in the picture below.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWe stopped for lunch at the village of Chinchero.  We were visiting  a cooperative where the ladies make products from the wool of alpacas.

Lunch was served to us by the ladies.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe cuy, or guinea pig, pictured below is considered a delicacy in these parts.  It is a good source of protein.  The animal is domesticated for food.  It is difficult for some visitors to get used to eating cuy, especially in the form that it is usually presented in.  I found the little piece that I was given at lunch a little too tough to chew.  This was the only time I tried cuy.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAI was fascinated by the way the kids were carried around by their mothers.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWho can resist pictures of cute children!  This one continued to turn around and look at me as mom walked away.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERALunch was followed by a demonstration of the process for creating different colored threads from the wool. This thread is used for making the different products sold by the cooperative.  OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAMost of the people in this part of Peru are Incas.  The Inca religion is polytheistic in nature, with Pachamama, or mother earth, being one of the more important deities.  The Spanish invaders brought in Catholicism in the 16th century, and the locals in some parts of the country now practice a form of religion that seems to mix of customs from the two ways of living.   Depending on where we were in the country, we saw either the combination of the cross and the bulls, or just the bulls, on the roofs of homes, meant for protection of the people living in the home.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWhile walking through town we passed a procession.  It could have been the procession in celebration of Easter.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThere also seemed to be some kind of meeting going on in town.  I heard two different accounts regarding the subject of the meeting.  One was that this was a funeral service.  The other was that this was a meeting of the mayors of the local villages.  They are sitting to the left of the picture below.  I was told that the mayors carry their official staffs with them, and these had been collected in a standing pile in front of where they are seated.  A good amount of cerveza was being consumed by the mayors.  Some music was also being provided on the instruments that you can see in the foreground of the picture.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThen it was onward to our destination for the night.  The view beside the mountain roads was beautiful. We stopped for pictures.  The snow-capped peaks of the Andes appeared in the distance.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe valleys were covered with meadows, green fields, and clumps of trees.  There were flowers by the wayside.  For some reason I began to think of The Sound of Music.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe clouds moved swiftly across the sky.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAnd then we began our descent into the Sacred Valley following a series of switchbacks down a steep mountainside.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe sun was beginning to set as we got to our hotel on the outskirts of the town of Urubamba.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAUrubamba is a small place beside the Urubamba river, one of the headwaters of the Amazon river.  We went out to a local restaurant for dinner with our tour group after checking into our rooms.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAt dinner we were entertained by a musician playing music on different kinds of pan flutes.  He was quite talented.  Indeed, he had also made all of the instruments that he was playing.   OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAWhile you are in Peru, you will hear the song El Condor Pasa almost everywhere you go.    We heard the song being played most beautifully that evening.  Most of us from the US associate this song with Simon and Garfunkel, but the song actually originated in Peru.  The condor, puma, and snake, are the sacred animals of the Inca people.

We returned to our hotel after dinner and crashed out after the long day of travel.  So far there have been no issues in dealing with the altitude, but Urubamba is at an altitude of only about 9400 feet.

Next blog in the series here.

Lima, Peru

Lima was built in the 1500s by Francisco Pizarro and the Spanish conquerors.  It became the capital of the country, replacing the old capital of Cusco.  It is among the largest cities in South America.  It is a typical sprawling metropolitan area. It does not have that much that is unique and remarkable.  It has the typical official buildings of the Europeans (now adopted by the Peruvians), and the huge colonial churches, at the center of town; with the common people living in the less notable and more typical city surroundings.  The streets are busy with people going about their daily lives. There is plenty of public transportation – going all the way from three-wheelers to buses.  People are everywhere.  The city has a lively heartbeat.  Life seems to be better organized in the streets than some of the more chaotic cities that I have been to.  Here are some pictures.

Basilica and Convent of San Francisco.  There is a monastery of Franciscan monks in the compound beside the church. It is in the downtown area.  It is a legacy of the Spanish colonization.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThere are catacombs beneath the structure of the monastery. It is estimated that about 25,000 bodies were buried here.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAHere is our group walking in the government district.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe main square of Lima.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAA traffic intersection in the city.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERATraffic flows on the outskirts of the city.  The flow was quite smooth compared to some places that I have been to.  Automobiles seem to have the right-of-way over pedestrians.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThey have a metro system.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERASome shots on the street.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERASome of the main roads have a pathway in the median for pedestrians and bikes.  Some of these pathways look very nice and inviting, with trees lining the pathway.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe Miraflores district of Lima, where our hotel was located, has an area along the Pacific Ocean that is very lively in the evenings. We went there for dinner.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERALights over the Pacific Ocean.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIn the afternoon we went south of the city on the Pan-American highwayOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAto see the temple of the Sun and the rest of the Pachacamac Pre-Inca Ruins.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe next morning we caught a flight to get to our second destination. It was a short visit, but we will stop in Lima once again when we are leaving the country.

Next blog in this series here.

 

Onward to the Land of the Incas

We are preparing for a visit to Peru next month.  During this trip we will be traveling to the interior and visiting the heartland of the old Inca civilization, including the ancient city of Cusco.  We are looking forward to this visit.

I have been doing some reading in anticipation of this trip.  The first book that I read was ‘Turn Right at Machu Pichu”, by Mark Adams.  This book, first published in 2011, weaves two different story lines.  The first is Mark’s experience of traveling the region, following in the paths of earlier explorers, including trekking the famous Inca Trail to Machu Picchu.  Mark interweaves this narrative with an account of the history of the region, some of it very brutal, mostly centered around the time of the Spanish conquests of the area.  He talks about the “discovery” of Machu Picchu by Hiram Bingham III, a somewhat self-serving American explorer in search of fame, in 1911.  But Machu Picchu was never really “lost”, especially to the people who are from the region!  In any case, the stories are interesting, even if the details of the book are difficult to remember just a few weeks after reading it.  My memory is not what it used to be.

The other book I read more recently was “The Old Patagonian Express”, by Paul Theroux.  This book was first published in 1979.  It is an account of Paul’s travel from Boston, Massachusetts, to Esquel in Patagonia, mostly by train.  The travels took the author through Peru, and specifically Cusco and Machu Picchu.  I have a copy of the book that I had bought in June of 1985, when I was about to graduate with my doctorate degree.  It was time to open the book once again.

The spirit of the somewhat arduous trip taken by Paul Theroux (it took a few months to complete) is something that I can appreciate.  It is an undertaking that seems to have been driven mainly by the author’s sense of curiosity and adventure, and his need to leave his zone of comfort in the process.  It is about the thrill and the romance of travel.  You do it because you want to see, experience, and learn about new things, new places, new people, etc..  You are not looking for the familiar place or face.  You do not have a complete plan in place to handle the situations that you will encounter.  And it is more significant than that – you willingly open yourself to the unexpected and let yourself become more vulnerable. And in all of this, you manage to learn something more about yourself.

One has to remember that Paul Theroux’s book was written in the 1970s.  I now find that his attitude towards the kind of people that he encountered, especially the locals, seems to be somewhat condescending, or maybe it is just a general sense of superiority.  I wonder if it is actually a sign of the times that Paul Theroux lived and traveled in, or if it is a somewhat generic attitude taken by folks who are out on voyages of discovery, including most of the explorers of times past – especially those from Europe and North America.  They always thought that they were better off than the others, and that they knew what was good for others. Perhaps they were really better off from a materialistic point of view, but did they necessarily know what was good for others?

Paul talks a lot about the poverty he encountered in Peru, especially among the natives.  The power structures in place in government in those days did not seem to be geared towards improving the lives of the common man.  Perhaps it is all true.  My problem, reading Paul’s work at this time in my life, is the feeling I have that he does not seem to have gone beyond the superficial in trying to understand the lives of people.  He does not seem to have had the conversations that someone who is undertaking this kind of effort should be having.   Maybe he did not have enough time.  Maybe he did not think his book was meant to be read by somebody of Inca ancestry.  In my mind, he comes off as being quite opinionated in this regard.  He might have thought that he was be brutally honest, but I think the problem is that he did not make the attempt to have a more complete perspective. He really did not complete his homework.  Perhaps, this is a general problem with the attitudes of too many explorers.

Anyway, here we are, more than 40 years after the time of Paul Theroux’s travels to South America, and we are on our way to South America once again (we went to Ecuador two years ago).  I wonder how the country of Peru has changed since the 1970s.  We are not adventurers like Paul Theroux.  We are going in an organized tour group, and everything is going to be taken care of for us.   We will probably be shielded in some way from the locals.  Paul Theroux had also traveled through Ecuador, and he talks about the poverty in that country, but our exposure to those circumstances a couple of years ago in the tour group in Ecuador was minimal.  It could be that the situation has changed since the 1970s, but it could also be that we were just shown what would be tolerated by “tourists” like us – things that were unlikely to cause us distress, or show the country in a poor light.

It seems like the town of Cusco was geared somewhat towards tourism even in the 1970s.  It is in all likelihood even more so today.  You only have to see all the information on the Internet in this regard to sense that this is the case.  You would also be led to believe that people are generally much better off in Cusco today than 40 years ago, but how can one be sure without having the complete experience?

As I said before, since we will be arriving in Peru as tourists in a tour group, almost everything that we do will be according to a plan and a schedule.  But the explorer in me feels that perhaps some of the more remarkable and memorable moments of the trip could happen outside of the script.  One just has to be open to the possibilities.

One final note about the trains that Paul Theroux took many years ago.  Even in those days, there was no way to do the entire trip from Massachusetts to Patagonia solely by train.  Looking at the available train services today, this situation has gotten even worse.  Passenger train services are available in much fewer places today.  Common folk have to depend more on the buses than they used to do in times past.  In a few places, the trains have been saved by running services over short distances just for the tourists.  But this is not the real thing!  The romance of the railroad is not what it used to be.